This list is a refinement of a provisional unpublished list supplied by Dr Malcolm Vale and Dr Guilhem Pépin. Those names shown in bold have been confirmed from the Gascon Rolls or other sources.
No complete list of the individuals who held this office exists, but lists for particular reigns and periods have been published. There is complete list of seneschals of Gascony between 1253 and 1305 in Trabut-Cussac, J.-P., L’administration anglaise en Gascogne sous Henry III et Édouard I de 1254 à 1307 (Paris-Genève, 1972), 372-376. A list of those seneschals for the first part of the reign of Edward II was produced in RG IV, xix-xxii, and another one for the period between 1399 and 1453 can be found in Vale, M., English Gascony, 1399-1453, 245-246.
Jean I de Grailly (1266-1268), first appointment
Thomas d’Ippegrave (1268-1269)
Fortaner de Cazeneuve (1269)
Hugh de Turberville (c.June 1271-1272)
Luke de Tany, kt (c.18 May 1272 – May-July 1278)
A major landowner in Yorkshire, Tany was an important royalist in the baronial war towards the end of Henry III's reign. He seems to have been close to the Lord Edward, subsequently Edward I, going on crusade with him in 1270. On there return, he was granted Lalinde by Edward I, and was appointed seneschal of Aquitaine. Following Edward's departure for England, his forceful style of government provoke much opposition in the duchy, so much so that a commission constituted of Otho de Grandison and Robert Burnell, two important councillors of Edward I removed Tany from office, apparently without disgrace.
Tany went on to serve in Edward I's second Welsh war, and he was killed in the ill-fated attempt to invade North Wales on a bridge of boats from Anglesea in 1282 along with many other English nobles and soldiers. For further information see the short but excellent biography of Tany by Michael Prestwich on the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/37698?docPos=1)
Jean I de Grailly (c.August-September 1278- became lieutenant on 18 October 1283), second appointment
John de Vaux (18 October 1283-December 1283), he never took this office
Jean I de Grailly (c.23 November 1283-1287), third appointment
William Middleton, bishop of Norwich (1287-1288)
John de Havering, kt (c.8 May 1288-22 March 1294), first appointment
John de Saint John (app. 1 July 1294- made prisoner by the French on 2 February 1297)
John de Hastings (23 August 1302- replaced on 24 March 1305)
Hastings held the office concurrently with that of lieutenant of the king in the duchy. This was his first appointment.
John de Havering (24 March 1305- 2 August 1308)
This was Havering’s second appointment.
Guy Ferre, kt (12 March 1308-September 1309)
This was Ferre’s first appointment as seneschal (RG IV, entry 22, p. 28). Amanèu du Foussat was lieutenant of the seneschal of Gascony, during his absence, and was acting from September 1309 to February 1310.
John de Hastings, kt (24 October 1309-January 1312)
This was Hasting’s second appointment, and he was acting from February 1310 (RG IV, entry 313, p. 97). He was appointed lieutenant at the same time. Assiu de Galard, was acting as lieutenant of the seneschal of Gascony during his absence from August 1311 to February 1312.
John de Ferrers of Chartley, kt (24 Januuary 1312-d. before 28 October 1312)
Ferrers was appointed seneschal on 24 January 1312 (RG IV, entry 601, pp. 173-4). Apparently murdered in Gascony following escallating conflict between Ferrers and many nobles and people of the duchy (RG IV, entry 734, p. 205). For a fuller discussion of Ferrers’ background and tenure of the office, see Vale, The Angevin Legacy, 164-72.
Estèbe Ferréol, lord of Tonneins (28 October 1312-after 3 February 1313)
Ferréol was appointed on 28 October 1312 following the death of John de Ferrers (RG IV, entry 762, p. 211).
Amaury III de Craon, kt, lord of Craon (5 July 1313; -August 1316)
Craon was appointed on 5 July 1313 (RG IV, entry 969, p. 260), and was resident in the duchy from September 1313.
Gilbert Pecche (18 July 1316-3 November 1317)
Pecche was appointed seneschal on 18 July 1316 (RG IV, entry 1671, p. 488).
Antonio di Pessagno, (3 November 1317 – 20 November 1318)
The appointment of Pessagno as seneschal capped a long career in service for this Genoese (entry 30 in C 61/32). Despite this service, it would appear that Pessagno's removal from the office of seneschal presaged a rapid fall from grace, with his successor being ordered by the king to arrest Pessagno on 27 January 1319, and send him to England to answer charges for offences committed against the earl of Pembroke while acting as a royal envoy in the Papal Curia (entry 400 in C 61/32).
William de Montague, kt (20 November 1318 – d. by 6 November 1319
Montague was second lord Montague, born <hi>c.</hi> 1285. His family holdings were focused in the south-west of England. Like his father, Montague had an impressive military record, principally in the latter stages of Edward I's Scottish wars, but also in Edward II's ill-fated Scottish adventures.
Montague was closely associated with Edward II's regime, being appointed steward of the royal household in November 1316, a position he lost two years afterwards, perhaps to appease Thomas of Lancaster. Very quickly after his removal from the stewardship, he was appointed seneschal of Gascony, a position he was to hold until his death in the second half of 1319 (entry 323 in C 61/32). It is possible that Montague became the object of opposition in Bordeaux, for several entries suggest that he was physically assaulted in his residence in Bordeaux late in his seneschalcy, and it is possible that he died as a result of these events Letters were still being addressed to Montague as late as 25 October 1319, but he was certainly known to be dead by 6 November 1319 (entries 13 and 16 in C 61/33). Various entries in C 61/33 confirm that a dispute developed between Montague, and certain men of Bordeaux, in one entry identified as of Tropeyta, and several named individuals were prosecuted for the attack (entries 52, 169, 217 and 348 in C 61/33), Amaniu de Foussat being appointed as governer following the death (entry 16 in C 61/33).
Amaniu du Foussat, lord of Madaillan, kt (6 November 1319 - 28 February 1320)
Foussat was appointed to govern the duchy following the death of William de Montague in office. He was appointed until a new seneschal could be appointed (entry 16 in C 61/33). It would seem that Foussat had been lieutenant of Montague (entry 47 in C 61/33).
Maurice de Berkeley, kt (28 February 1320 - 22 July 1320)
Following the death of William de Montague, the office of seneschal had been fulfilled by Amaniu du Foussat as a temporary governor (entry 104 in C 61/33).
Amaury III de Craon, kt (22 July 1320 - 11 April 1322)
Craon was appointed only six months after the appointment of Berkeley, and it must be wondered whether Berkeley ever took up office (entry 230 in C 61/33). He was granted the power to appoint the constable of Bordeaux (entry 232 in C 61/33).
Fulk Lestrange (11 April 1322 – 7 July 1322)
Appointed on 11 April 1322 (entry 71 in C 61/35).
Ralph Basset of Drayton (11 June 1323 - removed by 15 March 1324)
The first appointment of Basset to this office was made on 11 June 1323 (entry 204 in C 61/35). Basset was removed by 15 March 1324 because of his alleged complicity in the raid on Saint-Sardos that was to precipitate war between England and France in 1324.
Robert de Shirland (15 March 1324 - July/September 1324)
Shirland was mayor of Bordeaux and appointed to the governance of the duchy on the removal of Ralph Basset (entry 258 in C 61/35). Afterwards, around July 1324, Basset was to allege that Shirland and Adam de Limber, constable of Bordeaux, 'shamefully and hastily put him out of his office against the will of the king' (Chaplais, P., The War of Saint-Sardos (1323-1325) (London, 1954), p. 46). Shirland was still mayor in July 1324, but he was dead by 1 September 1324 (Chaplais, The War of Saint-Sardos, pp. 46 and 51).
It would appear from recent work on Shirland in the context of the baronial revolt against Edward II, that he was a career soldier with a long record of royal service, and had been drawn into the opposition to the Despensers by close links to Bartholomew de Badlesmere. After the crushing of the revolt Shirland was retained by the younger Despenser by a very one sided indenture, and it has been suggested that this was a device used by Despenser to tightly control a former rebel. Shirland must have owed his appointment as mayor, then seneschal, to Despenser, who quite probably was utilising the tight hold he had over Shirland to govern the duchy (Saul, N., 'An Early Private Indenture of Retainer: The Agreement Between Hugh Despenser the Younger and Sir Robert De Shirland', EHR, CXXVIII No. 532, 519-34).
Richard de Grey (1 April 1324 – 21 July 1324)
Appointed on 1 April 1324 (entry 304 in C 61/35).
Ralph Basset of Drayton (21 July 1324 and 30 September 1324 - 18 November 1324)
However, despite these appointments, details contained in the account of Master Nicholas de Huggate for the army sent to Aquitaine for the war of Saint-Sardos, record that Basset held the office from 5 November to 23 December 1324 (BL Add 7967, fol. 36r).
John de Wisham (18 November 1324 - 14 August 1325)
Wisham was appointed on 18 November 1324 (entry 140 in C 61/36). However, the appointment coincided exactly with another appointment to John de Segrave of the same office (entry 144 in C 61/36). However Wisham actually took up the office from references in C 61/38.
Details in an account book of Nicholas de Huggate for the army of the war of Saint-Sardos recorded that Wisham left office on 14 August 1325 (BL Add 7967, fol. 36v). Since Sully was appointed on 13 July 1325, there must have been a delay in him taking up office.
John de Segrave the elder (18 November 1324 - ? 13 July 1325)
Segrave was appointed on 18 November 1324 (entry 144 in C 61/36). However, the appointment coincided exactly with another appointment to John de Wisham of the same office (entry 140 in C 61/36) . It seems likely that Segrave never actually took up the office
Henri de Sully (13 July 1325 - 10 March 1326)
Sully was appointed by Edward II, by the nomination of Charles IV, king of France, as part of the settlement of the war of Saint-Sardos (entry 14 in C 61/38)
However, John de Wisham, his predecessor did not leave office until 14 August 1325 (BL Add 7967, fol. 36v), and in the record a note is made of the payment of wages and expenses to Gilbert de Elsfield, kt, when he was sent to Agen to negotiate with Sully, on various matters, perhaps including his appointment to the office (BL Add 7967, fol. 44r).
Oliver de Ingham (10 March 1326 – 24 February 1327)
Ingham was appointed on 10 March 1326 (entry 54 in C 61/38).
John de Haustede, kt, (24 February 1327 - 29 June 1331)
Haustede was appointed on 24 February 1327 (entry 20 in C 61/39).
Oliver de Ingham, kt (29 June 1331 - 20 July 1343)
This was Ingham's second appointment, and he was to serve for seven years, and indeed, he was one of the longest serving seneschals up until that point. On 15 March 1338, John de Norwich, kt, was appointed as Ingham's lieutenant because of illness that Ingham was suffering (entry 50 in C 61/50). But a later entry on the roll, though bearing the same date granted the full office to Norwich. However, this latter may never have taken up office, for entries on the same roll following this clearly indicate that Ingham continued in office, and was also made joint lieutenant of the king in Aquitaine. Reynold de Bixley was Ingham's lieutenant (amongst others C 61/54, m. 1).
John de Norwich (15 March 1338 - ? )
Appointed apparently because of the illness of his predecessor. The two entries relating to Norwich's appointment are both dated to 15 March, but one appoints him as lieutenant to Ingham, whilst the other appoints him to the office in his own right (entry 50 & entry 56 in C 61/50). However, he may never have taken up office, for entries on the same roll following this clearly indicate that Ingham continued in office, and was also made joint lieutenant.
Nicholas de la Beche (20 July 1343 - 24 February 1345)
Beche was appointed on 20 July 1343 (C 61/55, m. 12). Beche's lieutenant in the office was one of his kinsmen, perhaps his brother - Edmund de la Beche. He was appointed by the king in January 1345 because of Nicholas' illness (entry 126 in C 61/56).
Ralph de Stafford, baron of Stafford (25 February 1345-24 March 1347).
For the letter committing the office to Stafford on 25 February 1345, see entry 4 in C 61/57. However, letters of protection for Stafford were not issued until 20 April, so that it is unlikely that he could have formally taken up office much before early May, even if he had departed promptly on receipt of the protection (entry 51 in C 61/57). It would seem that Stafford did not wish to remain in office, for the earl of Lancaster was given power to negotiate with him on his continuing in the office (entry 12 in C 61/58).
Thomas Cok, kt, (25 March 1347 – c.28 May 1349)
Appointed on 22 March 1247, with his office to commence on 25 March (entry 7 in C 61/59).
Frank van Hallen (often known in English as Frank de la Halle or Frank de Hale) (20 June 1349 – ?)
Appointed on 20 June 1349 (C 61/61, m. 5).
John de Chiverston (nominated 13 September 1350 - ?)
This was Chiverston's first appointment (C 61/62, m. 4, m. 3).
It is possible that from this time Arnold Savage, kt, was Chiverston's lieutenant (entry 121 in C 61/74 & entry 1 in C 61/75). However, in February 1351, John de Charnels, the then constable of Bordeaux, issued letters by which it is clear that he was acting as lieutenant of Chiverston (entry 42 in C 61/99).
Arnaut-Bernat III de Preissac, known as Soudan de Préchac (or Preissac) or Soudan de La Trau (or La Trave) (c. 13 February 1354).
Recorded as governing the office of seneschal on 13 February 1354 (entry 15 in C 61/66).
John de Chiverston (20 March 1354 - ?)
Second appointment on 20 March 1354 (entry 21 in C 61/66).
Richard de Stafford of Clifton, the elder, kt (1 July 1361-11 November 1361)
Appointed on 1 July 1361 (entry 46 in C 61/74), but it is not clear whether he acted in the office at this point, his appointment being superseded by the appointment of John Chandos only four months afterwards (entry 113 in C 61/74). Anyway, Stafford was acting as seneschal on 8 june 1362 when John de Chiverston was appointed seneschal (entry 37 in C 61/75).
Stafford (c.1305-1380) was the younger brother of Ralph, the first earl of Stafford, and enjoyed a long military career, serving in Scotland, but more particularly in France and Aquitaine. He received significant grants from Edward of Woodstock, and was first summoned to parliament as a baron (Lord Stafford of Clifton). (An excellent biography of Stafford by Carole Rawcliffe can be found within that of his brother, Ralph: (http://www.oxforddnb.com.ezproxy.liv.ac.uk/view/article/26211/26212?docPos=1).)
John Chandos (12 November 1361- ...)
Chandos was appointed late in the year to replace Stafford. As a close associate of the Black Prince, it is probable that the appointment was made in anticipation of the prince's long delayed departure to Aquitaine (entry 113 in C 61/74). It is probable that he acted not as seneschal, but as captain general of Edward III (nominated 20 January 1361, Rymer, Foedera, éd. 1825, vol. III, p. 1, p. 555).
John de Chiverston (nominated 8 June 1362-July 1362)
This was Chiverston's second appointment. He appears to be the first individual appointed with the title of seneschal of Aquitaine, rather than seneschal of Gascony (entry 36 in C 61/75). Although there is some suggestion that he never acted, letters were still being addressed to him on 26 October 1362 (entry 97 in C 61/75).
Thomas de Felton, kt, (1363- 1 September 1377)
Felton was acting probably from 1363. No appointment is recorded in the Gascon Rolls prior to the appointment made by the king on 6 March 1373 (entry 13 in C 61/86).
John de Neville, lord Neville of Raby (12 April 1378- 17 February 1381)
King’s lieutenant, acting seneschal.
Born in Raby castle in Durham between 1337 and 1340, Neville enjoyed an active career, succeeding his father in 1367. Serving as Richard II's first lieutenant, and during his minority, the position of the English was quite precarious, so that the lieutenant was involved in the ongoing war in Aquitaine.
William le Scrope, kt (provisional seneschal 17 February 1381- 1 February 1382; and seneschal from 28 May 1383 - 1 March 1385)
Scrope was appointed for the first time on 28 May 1383 entry 107 in C 61/96. However in entry 71 in C 61/95, 16 February 1382, Scrope is referred to in the context of John Neville's return home, as the 'king's governor', suggesting that he was fulfilling some sort of supervisory role before he was appointed seneschal.
John Harpsden (or Harpedenne), kt (1 March 1385- 25 June 1389)
Harpsden was appointed on 1 March 1385 (C 61/98, m. 3).
John Trailly (25 June 1389-1390)
William le Scrope (1390-?)
Lescrope’s second appointment (nominated by John of Gaunt, duke of Aquitaine and Lancaster).
John Trailly (? – 1398).
Trailly’s second appointment.
Archambaud de Grailly, captal de Buch (1398-1399)
Galhart II de Durfort, lord of Duras and Blanquefort (23 December 1399-June 1415)
Durfort was appointed on 23 December 1399 (entry 53 in C 61/107). Durfort was lord of Duras, and confirmed supporter of the new Lancastrian regime, serving in office well into the reign of Henry V. For fuller details, see Vale, English Gascony, 245.
John Tiptoft, kt (8 May 1415-1423)
Appointed on 8 May 1415 (entry 2 in C 61/116). Indentures of appointment were made slightly earlier on 30 April 1415 (E 101/48/4). For fuller details, see Vale, English Gascony, 245.
John Radcliffe (1May 1423-1436)
Appointed on 1 May 1423 (E 101/189/5). He received further grants of power on 13 June 1423 (C 61/119, m.20, 17, 16), and 13 July 1423 (ibid., m.15). Accounts were produced for the term 5 August 1423-6 November 1436 (E 101/189/5). He was absent from the duchy from 29 September 1427 until late June 1431 (E 101/189/12, fos. 35, 81 and 103). For fuller details, see Vale, English Gascony, 245.
Thomas Rampston, kt (acting by 9 April 1440-14 July 1442)
The date of the appointment by John Holland, earl of Huntingdon, is unknown. Rampston was acting as seneschal by 9 April 1440 (C 61/129, m.2). He was captured by the French at Saint-Sever by 14 July 1442 (Beckington, Journal, 185, 189-90). For fuller details, see Vale, English Gascony, 245.
Robert Vere, kt (5 August 1441 – 15 August 1441)
Vere was initially appointed by the earl of Huntingdon on 5 August 1441, which was confirmed on 8 September 1441 (C 61/131, m.9). He was re-appointed on 15 November 1445 (C 61/134, m.6). For fuller details, see Vale, English Gascony, 245.
Robert Roos, kt (15 August 1442 – c. 1 March 1443)
Roos was appointed regent and governor of the office of seneschal on 15 August 1442 by the Three Estates (Beckington, Journal, 197, 200), and he was still acting on 1 March 1443 (E 101/208/1, no.19). For fuller details, see Vale, English Gascony, 245.
William Bonneville, kt (1 December 1442 – 15 November 1445)
Bonneville was first appointed on 1 December 1442 (C 61/132, m15; E 101/71/4). For fuller details, see Vale, English Gascony, 245.
Robert Vere, kt (15 November 1445 – ? )
Vere was appointed for the second time on 15 November 1445 (C 61/134, m.6). For fuller details, see Vale, English Gascony, 245.
? William Bonneville, kt (? 22 December 1450 - ? )
No apparent appointment seems to survive, but with Vere’s appointment in November 1445, if he took up office, there must have been a second appointment of Bonneville for him to have been acting in office on 22 December 1450 (E 101/193/11, no.15). For fuller details, see Vale, English Gascony, 245.
Richard Woodville, kt (18 October 1450)
Woodville was appointed on 18 October 1450 (C 61/138, m.14). He appears to have been waiting to sail on 16 June 1451 (CPR 1446-52, 476). He never acted in office or finally made it to the duchy. For fuller details, see Vale, English Gascony, 245.
Roger Camoys, lord Camoys (4 July 1453-19 October 1453)
He was the son of Thomas Camoys, baron Camoys, by his second wife Elizabeth Mortimer, widow of Henry Percy (Hotspur), the Camoys family originating in Gressenhall, Norfolk. His father also had a son by his first wife, who, although he predeceased his father, had a son, Hugh, who succeeded to the title, and upon whose death without children, the title fell into abeyance. Despite this Roger Camoys was known as lord Camoys. Camoys had a very active career, serving in Normandy, where, as the English administration collapsed, he gained a reputation as a freebooter, living off the land (Pollard, John Talbot and the War in France, p. 62).
Camoys was appointed on 4 July 1453 (entry 66 in C 61/139). He was still acting on 18 October 1453 (E 101/193/15, nos. 23, 25-33). For fuller details, see Vale, English Gascony, 246.